2017年5月 6日 (土)

EPF§11 At the end

 The advantage point of the EPS furnace are as follows compared with vacuum system furnace as TOKAMAK.

(1) The raw material is only heavy water which exists in the sea water infinitely. Namely the raw material cost is almost free.

(2) The discharged substance is only helium. Namely The EPS is pollution free.

(3)  The EPS is safe because it is nuclei fusion.

 The other principal advantage points of EPS are as follows.

(1)The EPS furnace does not need special heat exchanger for withdrawing the produced energy.

(2)The EPS furnace does not need special machine or system for discharging helium which is produced by nuclei fusion reaction.

(3)There are no problem against high temperature plasma for the wall material because the wall is covered by heavy water.

(4) The ignition of the system is easy because the plasma is heated by the force of electric field.

(5) The EPS is easily possible to correspond with variation of demand fluctuations although the bigger furnace is more advantageous for economical view point.

Summing up, the EPS can be said that the system is safe and pollution free and that inexhaustible energy is got with extremely low cost.

    That is all.

EPF§10.2 The safety of the EPS

The certification of the safety of the nuclei fusion furnace must be the most important subject when the furnace is used practically.

The mass of fuel which is charged in the furnace is extremely little in the vacuum system or EPS. Therefore the big accident as the Fukushima accident do not occur absolutely or substantially even if some accident occur in vacuum system or EPS furnace.

However no one will be able to say that the leak of radioactive substance tritium do not occur in the vacuum system furnace. Over the more there are the risk of the leak of more terrible substance neutrons which can penetrate even thick copper plate.

In the case of EPS radioactive substance tritium is not used as fuel. The tritium or neutrons are produced temporally in the process of fusion reaction. But they do not leak outside of furnace. Because tritium produced in the process of the reaction are all surrounded by Deuterium ion D+ so D-T reaction occur and D+ is consumed immediately. Because the reaction rate of D-T reaction is very larger than that of DD reaction.

The mass of produced neutrons is smaller than the mass of ion or ion. And the plasma is rotated with the speed about100400m/s around the center line of the furnace as explained in §4.. Therefore smaller neutrons gather to the center line of the furnace and is consumed immediately according the equation (5) as explained in §5.1. 

EPF§10A little  adjustment of mass of the reaction and the safety of the EPS (undesirable increasing or reduction of the reaction)

 

A little  adjustment of mass of the reaction and the safety of the EPS (undesirable increasing or reduction of the reaction

The reaction mass of the EPS change with force of the magnetic field, force of the electric field or vapor pressure and etc. Therefore the adjusting of mass of the reaction

is easily possible. So more explanation about the adjustment will be not needed.

The reaction rate of the EPS has maximum temperature point for constant pressure as showed ig. So the uncontrollable increase of reaction rate or automatic unwilling shrinkage do not occur.

EPF§9.2 The stopping of the operation of the furnace and the stopping of all electric source by some emergency accident

1) The stopping of the EPS furnace should be done as follows.

At first the electric voltage should be dropped slowly with maintaining the volume of heavy water circulation. By the action the volume of the reaction zone will be reduced and the temperature will become lower with the reduction of the zone. At the second the strength of magnetic field should be reduced slowly. Then the volume of the cooling zone will be increased and the pressure of the furnace will be reduced gradually. Subsequently the strength of the magnetic field should be done to zero and should be stopped the electric source. The temperature and the pressure of the furnace will be reduced to the atmospheric pressure with time. At the last the heavy water circulation should be stopped.

 

1)  All of the electric source stopping by heavy accident as huge earth quake

 

When heavy accident as all electric source stop occur the temperature of reaction zone of EPS furnace inside will be to loss the temperature of more than 1billion degree which is needed for nuclei reaction. However the temperature of the furnace inside should become high temperature and high pressure as an average and so the furnace body is to have provability of big damage. Therefore when a state of emergency occur the inside pressure of the furnace must be opened to the atmospheric pressure immediately and automatically.

 

 At the case there are some provability that a few amount of tritium or neutron which is remained in the reaction zone are released. However the damage by the release should be very small.

 

 

 

EPF§9.1 Ignition of the reaction zone -3

 

3) The third step

The raising of the strength of magnetic field and the electric voltage should be done slowly to the prescribed strength. Then the temperature of the furnace inside should raise up slowly and the vapor pressure should be raised up to the prescribed strength.

EPF§9.1 Ignition of the reaction zone -2

2) The second step

In the following step the electric magnet C1C8,C1’~C8should be worked to create weak magnetic field by weak electric current. Then weak mirror type magnetic field will be created by the action. Accordingly the reaction zone and the keeping heat warmth zone around the reaction zone and the trapezoid type electric field bung zone is to be formed. Then the electric voltage should be raised up slowly. By the raising of electric voltage the temperature of the furnace inside will be raised up slowly. Then the mass of circulating heavy water should be increased up slowly. Then the cooling zone will be appear whose temperature is lower than 10 thousand degree Celsius. However the electric resistance should not change in a large scale because the negative electric pole is in the neighborhood of the border line of the cooling zone and warmth keeping zone. Therefore the mass of electric current should not change in a large scale. On the other hand negative ion do not concentrate to one point of the positive poles. Namely electric current is to flow with stability not concentrating to one point. Therefore the temperature of the furnace is to raise up and the mass of the vaporization of heavy water is to raise up. Then the pressure of the furnace is to be raised up.

EPF§9.1 Ignition of the reaction zone

The EPS will be possible to move furnace continuously for long time. However inspection or repair of the furnace by human will be needed in some interval for the electrode or insulation of the inside wall etc. Therefore the air of the furnace inside must be extracted at first from the atmospheric pressure to vacuum state of 1/100 1/100kg/cm2 after the inspection. Namely the inside state of the furnace must be changed from high level vacuum and the normal temperature to high pressure as 60kg/cm2 and high temperature as about 2 billion degree Celsius for rising nuclei fusion reaction in EPS furnace.

 

1) The first step

 

In the normal temperature heavy water gas is not ionized so the electric conductivity is very small and therefore the electric discharge does not occur easily. Especially the discharge do not occur easily in the case of existing of magnetic field. Therefore at first the discharge should be started in the state of no magnetic field. At the case some auxiliary electrode should be effective for ionize the gas of the furnace inside. The gas should be almost ionized when the gas temperature reached about 10 thousand degree Celsius. The furnace wall should not be damaged by the temperature because the heat capacity of the gas is very small in the low pressure even if in such high temperature. 

 

EPF§8.2 circulation mass of heavy water

§8. circulation mass of heavy water

The heavy water wall is formed as showed Fig 1 along the furnace wall by flowing down from the top side to the bottom of the EPS furnace. The heavy water wall is formed as cascade type in order to forming uniform thickness of heavy water. The height of the one step cascade is to be about 23m. Then the number of the cascade will be 2025 steps. The thickness of heavy water wall is to be about 40100mm and the flow down mass of heavy water is to be about 10m3/s. The total circulation mass of heavy water is to be about 12m3/s because of the vaporing mass of heavy water is 6220ton/h=1.7m3/s. 

 The all energy are to be collected with heavy water vapor finally which are put into the furnace as electric power and produced energy by nuclei fusion energy. The heavy water which is not vaporized is to be collected in the bottom of the furnace and then pull out by pump for circulating again.

The heat burden of the heavy water wall is to be as follows.

The heavy water area is about (20)(40)=2500m2

 The heat burden 265X104/2500=1.1X103kW/m2

 

EPF§8.   Heavy water wall and cool down zone (vapor zone)

§8. 1 Necessary vaporing mass of heavy water and cooling zone

Latent heat of water is 1538kj/kg and specific volume is 0.02946m3/kg at temperature 600K, pressure 60kg/cm2. So Latent heat of water per unit volume is to be 5.2X104(kj/m3=kWs/m3).

Accordingly the necessary mass of vapor for the heat generating power 265X104kW is to be

 265X104 / 5.2X104 m3/s

=50.9m3/s  

=6220ton/h heavy water

And 12m/s of the rising speed of vapor will be said practically sufficient enough.

Then the necessary area is to be about 25m. Accordingly 0.5m width is to be sufficient for the vapor zone.

EPF3§7 The necessary thickness of the warmth keeping zone in the steady state of EPS furnace.

The temperature of reaction zone will be ensured to be 1.0X104eV namely above 1.1X108K when the thickness of the warmth keeping zone has over 3.3m for the reaction zone which has 2.7m as radius and 12X2 as height

 

EPF2§7 The necessary thickness of the warmth keeping zone in the steady state of EPS furnace.

The heat movement mass of vertical direction to magnetic line is calculated by following equation (8) by heat transfer engineering for small valueΔX.

Q=K()AΔT/ΔX    (8)

 ∴ ΔX=()AΔT/Q  (8)

 

We substitute Q=265107 as the produced heat mass. And we substituted the value of calculation result as A from the radius (2.7m) and height (12X2) of the reaction zone. We used as the thermal conductivities () got one by one by our theory with the conditions that the temperature are divided into 50 parts from 1.010eV to 1.010eV, and height direction are divided into 122.

The calculation result of ΣΔX(mare as follows at the furnace pressure is 60kg/cm2.

 

   T(eV ΣΔX(m

1.0104~3.0103    1.410-2

  ~2.0103 2.410-2

~1.5103  3.810-2

~1.0103 6.610-2

~5.0102 2.210-1

~2.0102 7.110-1

 ~1.0102 1.6100

~5.0101 2.4100

~1.0101 2.6100

~1.010 3.3100

EPF§7 The necessary thickness of the warmth keeping zone in the steady state of EPS furnace.

The magnetic line will be formed as Fig3.when electric magnets are set as showed Fig 1 and their magnetic flux density are set as follows.

1.5T  for ,C and’,C’)

 15.0T for ,C,Cand,C’,C

(-) 1.5T  for ,C,Cand’,C‘C’)

Namely the magnetic flux density for the center part is to be 12.5T and the density will become smaller toward the wall direction and will become to 9.5T at the end surface of the warmth keeping zone (about temperature 30000K). In the direction of height

at the mirror part will become 40T30T. This calculation result of the magnetic density showed in Fig 3 is got by dividing furnace body with 2m pitch lattice and then calculate approximately with using the equation which is described in the article 4) for each coil and then added the numerals of all coil as vector.

 

The mirror type magnetic field will be formed with arranging magnets as described above in Fig 1 or Fig 3 which has hemisphere body of bulging center part and the two mirrors at an interval of about 24 meter. And the reaction zone and warmth keeping zone are to be formed with adding electric field. We described already with the movement of ions in the electric field bung zone and the reaction zone. The magnetic line shows substantially equal temperature or equal density line or equal electric potential line in the warmth keeping zone because there are no heat or no diffusion or no movement of ions resistance for the parallel direction of magnetic line. 

 

EPF§6 The necessary cubic volume of the reaction zone in the steady state of EPS furnace.

The necessary cubic volume is to be got as follow

V=265X10/9500=279m

We used 12 billion degree Celsius as the temperature in the reaction zone, 15102kW as input electric energy and 9500kW/m3 as average fusion reaction energy.

EPF§5.2 Energy which occur in EPS furnace

The fusion reaction energy is got with following equation (7). We showed the calculation result as Fig 2.

FI=(n2)<σV>(E)

1.9X1015X<σV> n   (7)

In above equation we used=P/2k and E=23.8 by (6). The numeral of average reaction rate <σV> were got by figures which is described in nuclei fusion reaction books.

 

The effect for fusion energy in EPS furnace is remarkable with pressure as showed Fig2. And the maximum  will be got at the temperature of about 20keV.

 

EPF§5 The fusion reaction and energy which occur in EPS furnace

§5.1 The fusion reaction

D+D=T(1.01)+p(3.03 (1)

D+D=H(0.83)+(2.45)     (2)

D+T=H(3.52)+(14.06) (3)

 D+H=H(3.67)+(14.67)    (4) 

 +n=D(2.2)           (5)

The numerical values in parenthesis indicate the amount of supported energyMeV held by particles in above equations.  

 

 D+D=H+23.8MeV (6)

 

Equations (1)(4) are established equations in physics. In the equations reactions (1) and (2)  are to occur with almost same provability. And the reaction rate is to become maximum at temperature of about 20keV. And the reaction (3) and (4)  are to occur at same time with reaction of (1) and (2) because the reason that the collision cross section in equation (3) or (4) is larger two dimension than that of (1) or (2) at the temperature. And mass of proton p or neutron n is smaller than deuterium ions D+. So they gather to the center of the reaction zone as mentioned in §4、4 and therefore the reaction (5) is to occur at the same time. Therefore the following reaction is to occur as the result.

 

 D+D=H+23.8MeV (6)

 

EPF§4、4 EXB drift motion and movement of ions

In the all inside of the furnace including reaction zone 1 ions move to the wall from the reaction zone 1 to the negative pole 7 crossing the magnetic line. So ions is to actEXB drift motion and therefore will be to rotate around the center line of the body. By thisEXB drift motion ions will be to run with velocity of about100400m/s around the center line in the furnace.

 

So ions in the furnace is to receive centrifugal power. ions which is produced by fusion reaction or ions have relatively heavy weight. So ions or ions are to receive the power toward outside of the center line of the furnace body and move to the furnace wall. On the other hand neutrons n or proton which have comparatively light weight are to move toward the centerline of the furnace body.

 

And it is justly said that theEXB drift movement contribute to form turbulent flow in the reaction zone.

 

EPF§4、3 The movement of ions in the reaction zone 1

The ions which enter to the reaction zone 1 from the electric field bung zone 3 or 4 move to the center of the body 1. The movement is against each other side because the positive poles 6 are set at upside and bottom side of the body 1 in facing state each other. However they do not always collide with each other. The ions which do not collide move to mirror part and then turn back to the center. So the plasma in the reaction zone 1 is to become a turbulent state and ions collide each other with certain probability and therefore nuclei fusion reaction is to occur.

 

Namely if electric potential of 10 thousand volt is added between the both poles 6 and 7 the plasma will have temperature of about 1billion degree Celsius. Therefore DD reaction is to occur continuously in the reaction zone 1. And the all energy including added electric energy and produced nuclei fusion energy  is to move as heat energy toward the wall from the reaction zone1 to keeping warmth zone 2, cool down zone (vapor zone) 5 and at last to heavy water wall 10. Then the energy is absorbed by heavy water and then is to be taken out continuously as heavy water steam to outside of the body from the body inside.

 

EPF§4、2 The movement of ions in the electric field bung zone 3,4.

The high temperature ions in the reaction zone 1 do not move toward positive pole 6 namely toward the electric field bung zone3 or 4 because the strong electric field power. So the positive poles do not melt down by high temperature. 

Deuterium ions D+ and oxygen ions O2 generated by ionization of heavy water are to move by the electric field power in the electric field bung zone3 or 4. So electric flow is to flow along the line of magnetic line. Namely Deuterium ion D+ is to flow toward the reaction zone 1. (Electrons is to have leading roll by old theory. But ions have the leading roll by our theory. The fact is confirmed in Tokamak)

 

Therefore the reaction zone 1 will be filled up with deuterium ions D+ and electrons which is moved from the negative pole. On the other hand oxygen O2 is to proceed to positive pole 6 and change to oxygen molecule by discharging and then will be exhausted to outside of the body with heavy water steam. The confinement of plasma is to be kept steady in the reaction zone 1. And the ions or electrons will have temperature corresponding to electric potential which is given between positive and negative electric poles. 

§EPF4、1 Formation of reaction zone and electric field bung zone-2

 The electric current is formed with mainly flow of ions which flow from positive pole 6 to electric field bung zone 3 or 4 to reaction zone 1.In the electric field bung zone 3, 4, electric resistance is extremely small. Because the magnetic line in the electric field bung zone is parallel to the center line of the body. So generation of heat in electric field bung zone 3 or 4 is to be almost zero. Then electric flow with ions will go toward negative pole from the reaction zone 1. At the time ions flow cross the magnetic line and generate Jour heat because of strong electric resistance by magnetic line. So the vapor in the body including the vapor of the reaction zone 1 is to be heated. Temperature distribution is to be highest in the reaction zone 1 and temperature is to become lower to the body wall 10 which is covered by low temperature heavy water. And the density distribution of vapor is to become higher from the reaction zone 1 to the wall 10.

EPF§4、1 Formation of reaction zone and electric field bung zone

The basic image of EPS furnace which we propose is as follows. Heavy water wall 10 is formed by flow down along the inside of the body 11 as showed Fig1. The inside space of the body 11 is filled up with high pressure heavy water vapor. Therefore inside of the body is to be maintained at equal pressure in all place of the body inside unlike vacuum system. Strong magnets C1~C8 and C1’~C8are set at the outside of the body1 and mirror type magnetic field is to be formed at the inside of the body. Mirror type magnetic field is considered to be a kind of vessel whose center part is bulging and has two magnetic mirror M,M’ at upside and bottom side which is formed with heavy magnetic flux density. The magnetic mirror can confine ions and electrons in the vessel although the mirror is exit or entrance for ions or electrons. But the confinement by the magnetic mirror is not perfect. So we decided to use electric field together. Two hemisphere type positive poles (anode) 6 are set at the bottom of the skirt and a ring type negative pole (cathode) 7 is set along the wall inside at the middle height of the body as showed Fig1. And electric field is formed with high potential electric power which is given between the both poles. By this power ions are to move from the positive pole to the center of the magnetic vessel because of extremely small resistance of parallel direction of the magnetic line and then to the negative pole.

 

That is to say the trapezoid type electric field bung zones 3, 4 are formed which have magnetic mirror M, M’ as summit surface and positive pole as bottom surface. And the confinement of plasma is to become easily realized. Then the inside of the body is divided to reaction zone 1, keeping warmth zone 2, cool down zone (vapor zone) 5, upside electric field bung zone 3 and bottom side electric field bung zone 4 as showed Fig 1.

 

The heavy water which flow down along the body wall is to be vaporized by the cast electric energy and generated energy by nuclei fusion reaction. Then the inside of the body is fulfilled with heavy water vapor and each zone pressure will be all controlled to equal by controlling the pressure at some point.

 

EPF§3.2 A detailed exsample of EPS furnace

We will show a detailed example as below in order to clear the image of EPS furnace.

The numerical value are based on the calculated result in §5、§6 where heat generating power is imaged to be 26510kWelectric generation power is to be00X10kW.

1)The all body is constituted with diamagnetic materials and has about cylindrical or conical type shape as showed Fig1

2)  Body dimensions; inner diameter24m hight55m

 The inside of the furnace wall must be protected with electric insulation materials.

3) Electric magnets~CとC1~C are set at about 2m intervals in order to form mirror type magnetic field inside of the body.

4)Positive poles(anode) are formed to hemisphere type. They are set at the bottom of mirror type magnetic field skirt.

5) Negative pole (cathode)

 The negative pole is formed as a circular shape with stainless pipe and installed at the positio abou 2m from the wall inside that is the position of about the middle of the warmth keeping zone and the cooling zone. And the inside of the cathode is made to pass cooling water.

 

) Operation conditions

1) Operation material namely fuel is heavy water.

 Heavy water wall thickness is to be about 40~100mm

 Heavy water circulation volume is to be about 12.0m3/sec

 Heavy water evaporation quantity is to be 6220ton/h

2) Vapor pressure or plasma pressure is to be 60kg/cm2

3) Strength of mirror type magnetic field is to be installed

 At the center of the body ; 8.0T~

 At the mouth of electric field bung zone: 20~40T

At the bottom or at the positive pole of electric field bung zone:15~16T

 4) Electric potential of positive pole ; (+35~45 kV4) 

5) Electric potential of negative pole ; 0 V (earth)

 

6) The volume of reaction zone

7) The heat generating power 265104kW

8) Operation mode ; continuously  

 

EPF§3.1 The image of equal pressure system furnace 

§3 The outline of Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace. 

Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace namely EPS is constituted with following main elements.

 The EPS nuclei fusion furnace is composed with one furnace body which is composed with a diamagnetic material, a deuterium water wall which is formed along the whole inner surface of the body wall, several electric magnets which are set outside of the body in order to form the mirror type magnetic field, one pair of hemisphere positive pole which is set at the bottom of the skirt of the mirror magnet field facing each other, and one ring type negative pole which is set along the body inner wall.

§3. The image of equal pressure system furnace 

We will show the image of Equal pressure system furnace namely EPS as Fig1. 

1;  reaction zone

2 ; keeping warmth zone

3 ;  upside electric field bung zone

4 ; bottom side electric field bung zone

5 ;  cool down zone (vapor zone)

6 ; hemisphere positive pole(anode)

7 ; ring type negative pole(cathode)

8 ; vapor inlet

9 ; heavy water inlet

10 ; heavy water wall

11 ;  furnace body

C1~C8 ;  electric magnet

C1’~C8 ; electric magnet

M, M’ ; magnetic mirror

 

Fig1 image figure of EPS furnace

 

   

§3 The outline of Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace

§3 The outline of Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace. 

Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace namely EPS is constituted with following main elements.

 The EPS nuclei fusion furnace is composed with one furnace body which is composed with a diamagnetic material, a deuterium water wall which is formed along the whole inner surface of the body wall, several electric magnets which are set outside of the body in order to form the mirror type magnetic field, one pair of hemisphere positive pole which is set at the bottom of the skirt of the mirror magnet field facing each other, and one ring type negative pole which is set along the body inner wall.

EPF§2.2 Do turbulent flow occur in Tokamak furnace?-2

However the plasma is planned to confine with forth of magnetic line only. Namely the ions in Tokamak are restricted with line of strong magnetic force and adjacent ions run to same direction with same speed. But lines of magnetic force do not cross each other absolutely. Therefor the ions at least do not collide steadily each other and do not occur steadily turbulent flow. Namely steady turbulent flow therefore steady fusion reaction do not occur. Those logic will be easily understood even if not a fusion expert.

 

Nevertheless the studies or the experiments have been continued over more 60years.

 

The reason is to be, we think, that a like turbulent flow namely “sham turbulent flow” occurs in Tokamak. But the cause has not been clarified by now. We hope you to read attached our article “On the cause which generate disruption and the turbulent flow in the Tokamak” where we explained the cause in detail.

The reports have been frequently described in newspapers or magazines that fusion energy is a dream energy and practical use will be realized soon. However there are no theory in the present plasma physics that can explain the cause of the turbulent flow or the disruption which extinguish the plasma in Tokamak momentary. So we think a fusion reactor will not be realized in 100years hereafter.

EFP§2.2 Do turbulent flow occur in Tokamak furnace?

Turbulent flow will be got by stirring with stirrer or fan in the case of fluid which is in a vessel. In the case where fluid stream into a vessel continuously turbulent flow will be got by devising vessel shape, fluid speed, direction of stream in or out etc. without using special stirrers or fans. This corresponds with our “Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace”. 

 

Turbulent flow will be got even if in the case where fluid flow in pipe to one side as Tokamak furnace if Reynold’s number is larger than some number that is defined by hydrodynamics. Reynold’s number is to become large when pipe diameter is large, fluid speed and fluid density are big and fluid coefficient of viscosity is small.

 

The adjacent ions or electrons flow to same direction along the line of magnetic force in Tokamak furnace. Do turbulent flow occur in the state of Tokamak? The Reynold’s number is not able to be calculated because the fluid coefficient of viscosity is not clear. However the pipe diameter is big enough and the speed of plasma is extremely swift and the density of plasma is planned as possible as high. So the Reynold’s number is to be supposed to be big enough. Accordingly the turbulent flow is considered to be in the state of occurring easily.

 

EPF§2 Do the turbulent flow occur in Tokamak furnace?

§2.1 The necessity and the term of turbulent flow occurring

Turbulent flow occurs when particles as ions or electrons collide violently with each other which constitute liquid or gas, conversely when turbulent flow occurs particles will collide each other. On the other hand collisions of particles occur scarcely or will not occur entirely when turbulent flow do not occur.

The fact is extremely important in thinking on chemical reactions or fusion reactions. And turbulent flow is concern to only reaction speed in chemical reaction. On the other hand it is concern occurring of reaction itself in nuclei fusion. So there will be no fusion experts who has objections against the fact as mentioned above.

EPF-4

 The many problems exist in the practical use of vacuum type nuclei fusion furnace as Tokamak furnace. So it could be said to be in a dead rock state considering in theoretically or in experimentally. We have regarded deeply these dead rock states and have got the new idea “Equal pressure system nuclei fusion furnace (herein after referred as EPS)” that will solve the problems in all round and substantially. So we hope to propose the new system. 

EPF-3

But it have been described that two conditions of temperature and density are a necessary condition for nuclei fusion reaction in ordinal physical books for nuclei fusion. And there have been no description with turbulent flow in these books. We think the two conditions are to be insufficient to occur nuclei fusion reaction. Because the reaction do not easily occur by the strong force of Coulomb even if in the state of turbulent flow. Moreover the movement of ions are restricted by the line of magnetic force and adjacent ions run to same direction with same speed in Tokamak. We are not be able to understand why nuclei fusion occurs in the state. We think the reaction of the nuclei fusion do not occur absolutely without the true turbulent flow. So we think the new energy will not be got by constructing how large furnace or by continuing experiment how long time years.

EPF-2

By the way, the nuclei fusion reaction occurs by colliding two positive ions as deuterium ion D+ or tritium ion T+ (hereinafter referred as deuterium ion D+ ). But the collisions do not occur easily by the positive charge that the D+ have , but only occur with extremely small probability. So the following conditions are needed.

 

1) The temperature of plasma should be over 1 billion degree Celsius.

2) The density of plasma is to be as high as possible.

3) The plasma must be in a state of turbulent flow.

 

We think that these conditions are sufficient  for nuclei fusion reaction.

 

等圧法核融合炉A new proposal for nuclei fusion furnace (EPF)

§1. Introduction

Fossil fuels will run over of what day. Even without depletion, the endless use of fossil fuels not only will contaminate the air on the earth, harm human health, but will also cause global warming and ruin of mankind.

Now the development of atomic energy has been continued from about 1950s as future energy source. There are two sources of by nuclei split and by nuclei fusion as atomic energy.

 

The practical use by nuclei split has already spread as nuclear power plant in all over the world. However many country including Germany are aiming abolition of atomic power plant from the reflection of Fukushima’s accident and are aiming developments of energy with nature as sun light or wind power. However the cost by natural energy is very high and the stability for supply is lacking. So it is inevitable that natural energy has low  ability to enjoy the benefit of civilization. Therefor expectation for nuclei fusion energy has been rising. The nuclei fusion energy is expected to be absolutely safe energy unlike fission energy. So the practical use is to be earnest of all humankind.

 

 The study and experiments began in the 1950’s already. Various type has been  experimented as fusion furnace. And Tokamak type furnace has been considered as the most hopeful furnace. The furnace has doughnut type body and is expected to confine high temperature plasma by endless line of magnetic force.

 

Nevertheless the experiments have not  produced 1kW of the new energy. Of course the practical use has not been realized.

 

2017年4月18日 (火)

Q11「等圧法(EPF)」の場合開発にどれくらいの費用と年数?

1、新聞報道によれば「真空法(トカマク型核融合炉)」の実用化は早くても2050年となっている。「等圧法EPF」の場合開発にどれくらいの費用と年数を必要とするのか。

Q11 Practical use of "vacuum process (TOKAMAKU type fusion)" is 2050 even if it's early, according to newspaper reports. In the case of EPF, how much cost and how many years are needed in that development ?

 

(回答)

「トカマク炉」は開発開始以来60年以上経ている。そして現在は日本国内だけでなく世界中で実験が行われているがこれまで1kWのエネルギーをも生み出していない。そこで国際プロジェクトITERが1~2兆円の予算で発足したがそれによる実用化が2050年ごろと言われている。しかし一般の物理学者は核融合炉の実用化は100年後とも200年後とも嘲笑している。

A : Since development for TOKAMAKU type fusion was begun, more than 60 years has been passed. And now an experiment has been made at all over the world as well as in Japan, but the energy of the 1kW isn't also produced now.  So international project ITER started by the budget of 1~2 thousand billion yen, but practical use by that is said to be around 2050. But a general physicist is mocking practical use of atomic fusion with 100 or 200 years later.

それにたいし「等圧法」の場合は凡そ次のように見込んでいる。

On the other hand it's expected as follows approximately in case of "EPF".

1) 第1ステップ;等圧法の可能性確認

費用 ; 7~10億円

期間 ; 約3年

1) first step; Possibility confirmation of EPF

Cost; 700 1000 million dollars

Time; About 3 years

 

2) 第2ステップ;実証機

費用 ; 70~100億円

期間 ; 約3年

2) the 2nd step; Pilot Plant of EPF

Cost; 7 10 billion dollars

Time; About 3 years

 

3)第3ステップ;実用化1号機(能力約10万kW)

費用 ; 500~600億円

期間 ; 約4年

3) the 3rd step; Practical use 1 number machine (about 100,000 kW power)

Cost; 5060 billion dollars

Time; About 4 years

 

合計およそ10年あれば実用機が作れる。国家として全力を挙げて実行すれば5~6年で実用化できるであろう。

Practical machine can be made for total of approximately 10 years

When a state do the best and carry out, they are able to make a practical use in 5-6 years.

10. 核融合は何故難しいのか。何故実現しなかったのか。

Q10 Why is the fusion difficult? Why hasn't it realized?

 

(回答)

熱核融合の原理は以下のように単純明快である。

1.イオン温度を数億度~数10億度に(長時間)維持すること。

2. イオン密度を高めること。

3. イオンの運動方向がランダムであり正反対方向の運動を含むこと。

A : Principle of heat fusion is simple and clear as follows.

1. The ionic temperature has been kept at hundreds of millions ~thousands of millions (long time).

2. Raise the ion density.

3. Directions of motion of an ion are random, including movement in the contrary direction.

ところが現在までの真空法での実験炉は、第1と第2の条件を満足させれば第3の条件が自動的に満足するであろうと願望を交えた理論で、反応が発生しないまま開発が進められてきた。つまり現在の真空法は磁力線だけでプラズマを閉じ込めようとしている、即ちイオンや電子を磁力線に巻き付けているが、磁力線は交わらないのだからランダム運動すなわち乱流が発生するはずが無い。ところが実際にはそれに似た現象(偽乱流)が発生する。その原因は(実際に観測されている)イオンと電子が集団的に分離することに起因することは容易に想像できるが、何故分離するのかが、基礎理論である輸送係数論が誤っているため説明できない。すなわち、栃沢らの理論によれば磁場に拘束されているプラズマに外力(遠心力と拡散力)が加わると分離するとなるが、従来の輸送係数論によれば、拡散力の働き(強さ)が解っていない。そのため遠心力によって分離すると考えざるを得ない。ところが遠心力だけではプラズマが押し潰され真空中に浮遊できないとなり、押し潰されないで浮遊している実際に発生している現象が説明できなくなる。そこで物理学における最高の原理とも称される熱力学第2法則に反しても磁場に勾配があればイオンと電子が分離し偽乱流が発生するとされている。

また従来の輸送係数論によれば、導電率はプラズマ密度に関係なく変化するとなっている。そのため苦心して作った高温高密度のプラズマが突然轟音とともに一瞬にして消滅するディスラプション現象の発生原因が説明できない。

これではたとえ耐熱材料などの技術的問題が解決されたとしても核融合エネルギーは得られない。

But, an experiment furnace by vacuum process until present is the theory in which the desire to which "when 1st and 2nd condition are satisfied the 3rd condition would meet automatically." is included, and development has been advanced without a reaction's occurring. In other words, the present vacuum process is going to shut plasma only by a magnetic force line, or an ion and an electron are being wound around a magnetic force line, but because a magnetic force line doesn't cross, a random motion turbulent flow can't occur. But, a phenomenon similar to that (sham turbulent flow) occurs actually. They can imagine its cause being caused by the ion's and the electron's which (are observed actually) being separate collectively easily, but they can't explain why it's separate because the transport coefficient theory which is basic theory is wrong. Or when external force (centrifugal force and the spread power) is added to the plasma bound to a magnetic field according to Tochizawa's theory, it becomes separate, but we don't know the workings of the spread power (the strength) according to conventional transport coefficient theory. Therefore I can't help thinking it's separate by centrifugal force. But, plasma is crushed only by centrifugal force and can not float during a vacuum, and so the phenomenon which occurs to the actual condition which isn't crushed and is floating can't be explained any more. So when there is also a slope in a magnetic field contrary to the second law of thermodynamics which is also called the best principle in physics, it's said an ion and an electron are separate and sham turbulent flow occurs.

According to conventional transport coefficient theory the conductivity changes irrespective of plasma density.

Therefore they can not explain the cause of generation of the disruption phenomenon which extinguish high temperature and high density plasma with a roaring sound suddenly. As this condition even if a technical problem of temperature-resistant material is settled, the fusion energy isn't obtained.

9 等圧法(EPF)では反応の過程でもトリチウㇺや中性子が発生しないのか

Q9 Don't tritium and a neutron generate in the process of the reaction by EPF?

 

(回答)等圧法の場合核反応は次のように発生する

A ; A nuclear reaction occurs as follows in case of EPF.

D+D=T(1.01)+p(3.03 (1)

D+D=H(0.83)+(2.45)   (2)

D+T=H(3.52)+(14.06) (3)

D+H=H(3.67)+(14.67)    (4) 

 +n=D(2.2)           (5)

これらを総合すれば次の様な反応となる。

When combing these, it'll be a reaction like the next. 

D+D=H+23.8MeV (6) 

( )内は担持エネルギー量(MeV

(), Inside is the supported energy amount.

 

上に示したように最終的にはヘリウム(H )が発生するが反応の過程でトリチウㇺTや中性子nやプロトンpなどが発生する。しかしこれらが漏れ出ることはない。なぜなら等圧法では炉内のプラズマが炉の心軸を中心とし毎秒数100mの速度で回転している。そのため質量の大きなヘリウムは優先的に核反応ゾーンから飛び出し、質量の小さなプロトンpや中性子nは核反応ゾーンの中心方向に集まる。またトリチウㇺは周りがほとんどすべて重水素D+イオンであり温度がDT反応が最も発生しやすい約2億度なので瞬間的に反応(3)や反応(4)が発生する。そのため放射性物質が炉外に漏れ出すことはあり得ない。

Helium (He4) occurs finally as shown in the top, but tritium T, neutron n and proton p occur by the process of the reaction. But these don't leak out.

Because by EPF plasma in the hearth makes the center axis of a hearth , it's revolving with speed of 100 m per second. Therefore the helium with the big mass is distinctive from a nuclear reaction zone with priority, and proton p and neutron n with the small mass are collected in the center direction in a nuclear reaction zone. The circumference of tritium is a deuterium D+ ion almost completely, and the temperature is easiest for D-T reaction to generate, it's about 2 hundred million , so a reaction (3) and a reaction (4) occur momentarily. Therefore radioactive materials can not leak outside the hearth.

8.等圧法(EPF)には水素爆発の危険は無いのか。

 Q8 Isn't there a danger of a hydrogen explosion in EPF?

 

(回答)

 福島原発で発生したような核分裂方式型の暴走反応、放射性物質などの危険はすでに述べたように絶対にありえない。しかし当然火力発電並みの事故発生はあり得る。例えば配管からの蒸気漏れなどである。

 また炉内には重水素発生の反応過程があり、理論的にはそれがどこかに滞留した場合爆発しないとはいえない。しかし炉内では重水蒸気も重水素ガスも常に高速で流れており重水素ガスが一箇所に滞留することはない。また炉の外の機器(タービンや熱交換器など)に重水素が滞留し酸素や空気と一定の割合になれば爆発する可能性がある。しかし予め滞留する場所を特定してスパークさせれば大きな爆発に至らない。これらは、現在の石油プラントなど水素を取り扱う場合と同様な対応で解決できる問題である。そしてこれが発生しても福島原発事故のような解決不能の半永久的な事故にはならない。

The danger of runaway reaction and radioactive materials of the division system type which occurred at Fukushima nuclear power plant is impossible by all means as it was told already. But of course, an accident as thermal power generation is possible. For example leakage of steam from laying of the pipes.

Reaction process of deuterium occurrence is in the hearth, so when that was left untransported somewhere, theoretically, it will be possible to explode. But deuterium gas isn't left untransported in one point because heavy water steam and deuterium gas are always flowing at high speed in the hearth. When deuterium is left untransported in equipment outside the hearth (turbine and heat exchanger), and deuterium ,oxygen, and air form the fixed percentage, there is a possibility of explosion. But when specifying the place left untransported beforehand and making them spark, it won't be a big explosion.These problems can be settled like the case when hydrogen is treated at the present petroleum plant. And even if this occurs, it won't be a semi-permanent accident of solved impossibility like Fukushima nuclear accident.

2017年4月17日 (月)

7.等圧法(EPF)では壁が重水で覆われている。それ故炉内に投入されたエネルギーが重水の蒸発に奪われ温度が上昇しないのでないか。

Q7 The wall is covered up by heavy water in EPF. Therefore the energy put in the reactor is taken by evaporation of heavy water away, and the temperature does not rise. In case of vacuum process plasma at hundreds of millions faces a cold blanket across vacuum space.

 

(回答)液体の重水が周囲から熱エネルギーを受けると重水蒸気になるがその量は受けたエネルギー量に比例する。そして熱力学第一法則によればそれ以上には絶対に蒸発しない。

: Liquid heavy water changes vapor when it receive heat energy and the mass of it is in proportion to the energy quantity. And the vapor mass does not become absolutely larger than the energy quantity according to the first law of thermal dynamics. 

6.等圧法(EPF)でも温度が上昇しないのでないか。

6. 核融合では放射(輻射)による熱損失が大きい。故に等圧法EPFでも温度が上昇しないのでないか。

Q6 Fusion has a large heat loss by radiation. Therefore doesn’t the temperature also rise in EPF?

 

(回答)

放射損失は対面する高温プラズマと低温壁の温度差の(2)4乗に比例する。

真空法の場合は数億度のプラズマと低温のブランケットが真空空間を挟んで対面している。そして加熱のため数10億度~数100億度に相当する運動エネルギーを持ったイオンや電子がビーム状で投入される(その段階では温度の働きを示さない)。しかしそれが炉内で衝突し放射光が発生するがその場合発生する放射損失は温度が数10億度~数100億度に相当するものと考えるのが妥当でないだろうか。当然ながら莫大な放射損失が発生する。

一方等圧法の場合は数億度のプラズマと低温重水壁の間には温度が順次低

下する等圧の気体が保温ゾーンとして存在する。その保温ゾーンの高温気体

(プラズマ)からもエネルギーが放射するが低温壁方向だけでなく核反応ゾー

ンにも逆放射する。そのため放射損失は極めて少ない。

Energy loss by radiative process is proportional to (2~)4 power of temperature difference between hot plasma and cold wall. 

And for heating, an ion and an electron which have kinetic energy equivalent to several thousands of millions ~several tens of billions are thrown like a beam (The workings of the temperature isn't indicated at its stage.)

That collides in the hearth, and radiation of light occurs, but isn't it proper that the radiation loss regards the temperature at several thousands of millions ~several tens of billions . A huge radiation loss occurs of course.

On the other hand, in case of EPF gas of the isotonicity to which the temperature falls in sequence exists as a keeping warm zone between hundreds of millions of of plasma and the cold heavy water wall. The hot gas (plasma) energy of the keeping warm zone radiates not only to the cold wall direction but also to a reverse nuclear reaction zone. Therefore the radiation loss is very small.

 

5.Why or how is the EPF (Equal Pressure Fusion) absolutely safe?

5.なぜ等圧法ではD-D反応を使うのか

Q5 Why can the [EPF] use D-D reaction?

 

(回答) 従来法(真空法)では、D-D反応で発生する熱を回収できない

等圧法が採用しているD-D反応では反応の過程でトリチウムや中性子を発生するが最終的にはすべてヘリウムとなる。しかし真空法でヘリウムしか発生しないD-D反応を採用するとそのエネルギーを利用する方法が無い。なぜならヘリウムのもつ熱エネルギーを利用するには熱交換器を用いねばならないがその温度に耐える材料が存在しないのである。熱交換器で熱を回収するには伝導、対流、輻射のいずれかを利用するしかないが従来法の場合高温プラズマが真空中に浮遊するため伝導や対流が利用できない。輻射を利用するにはプラズマに面する壁の面積が少なすぎ壁自身が蒸発してしまう。これが現在第一壁問題とされている問題である。一方D-T反応によって中性子が発生すれば中性子は1m以上という分厚い銅製のブランケット内に進入し熱エネルギーとなるため温度が低下し利用可能となる。もちろん貫通してしまっては危険であるが。

一方等圧法の場合高温プラズマの周りが重水蒸気で囲まれ壁が重水そのものなので壁が蒸発することは全く問題とならない。むしろそれを利用して等圧法が成立している。

A : Then a conventional method (vacuum process) can't collect the heat which occurs by D-D reaction.

EPF generates tritium and a neutron by the process of the reaction by an adopted D-D reaction, but everything will be helium finally. But when the D-D reaction only helium generates by vacuum process is adopted, there are no ways to use its energy. Because they have to use a heat exchanger in order to use heat energy of helium, the material which resists its temperature doesn't exist. There is no choice but to use one of conduction, convection and radiation to collect heat by a heat exchanger, in case of a conventional method conduction and convection can't be used because hot plasma is floating in a vacuum. The area of the wall which faces the plasma is too little to use radiation, and a wall instantly disappear. This problem is said to be the first wall problem at present. On the other hand, when a neutron occurs by D-T reaction, a neutron enters in the thick copper made blanket as more than 1 m, and becomes heat energy, and then the temperature falls, and a neutron becomes available. Since piercing of course, it's dangerous.

On the other hand, the circumference of the hot plasma is surrounded with heavy water steam in case of EPF, and a wall, because heavy water is itself, won't be a problem to evaporate at all. In fact, using that, EPF is formed.

2017年4月16日 (日)

4.Why do the [VSF] use dangerous D-T reaction?

4.核融合反応としては安全でクリーンな重水素(D)だけを用いるD-D反応と重水素(D)と強い放射能を持つトリチウム(T)を反応させるD-T反応の利用が考えられる。それでは何故従来法は危険なトリチウムを用い、また危険な中性子を発生するD-T反応を選択しているのか。

Q4. There are two kinds of fusion reaction. One is D-D reaction which use only clean deuteron and the other is D-T reaction which use radioactive tritium and produce dangerous neutron. Why do the [VSF] use dangerous D-T reaction?

 

(回答)従来法(真空法)では、D-D反応の条件を作り出せない

密度が一定であればD-T反応は温度が数億度で反応率が極大となるのに対しD-D反応では数10億度が反応率の極大温度である。現在世界中の実験炉では一億度が瞬間的に得られているだけであり実用化には程遠い。まして10億度は不可能と言って過言でない。一方等圧法では電圧を上げれば容易に温度上昇が達成できるのでD-D反応を利用できる。またD-D反応であっても圧力が一定なので反応率は約2億度で極大となる。

A

The necessary conditions for D-D reaction could not be produced by the [VSF].

The maximum reaction speed is got with the temperature of about two hundred million degree in D-T reaction and the temperature is about two thousand million degree in D-D reaction with the same plasma density.  The maximum temperature which is got only momentary by the [VSF] of all laboratory in the world is about one hundred million degree. So the [VSF] is to be said to be far from practical use with D-T reaction. Much less that is said to be impossible in D-D reaction.

 On the other hand in the case of [EPF] the reaction rate become maximum at the temperature of about two hundred million degree even in D-D reaction because of the constant pressure is maintained. And the high temperature is easily got by increasing electric pressure. So the [EPF] can use D-D reaction. 

 

3. 核融合は放射線を発生しないのか。放射能漏れは発生しないのか。

Q3. Doesn't fusion generate radiation? Doesn't a radiation leak occur from a fusion furnace?

 

(回答) 

核融合の全ての方式において放射線が発生しないというわけではない。従来の方法(真空法)では強い放射能を持つトリチウムを用いる。また核反応によって強い放射線である中性子が発生する。それ故、これを真空ポンプで排出するとトリチウム が排出される可能性がある。また中性子は強い放射線であり炉内のブランケットで回収するがこれも放射能漏れが絶対無いとは言い切れない。しかし等圧法ではトリチウムのような放射線を出す原材料は用いないし核融合反応によっても発生しない。

That is not be able to say that all type of fusion system do not produce

radiant rays. The [EPF] do not use radioactive fuels as tritium and do not produce the radioactive substances by the fusion reaction.

 However the [VSF] use tritium as fuel and produce neutron which is strong radioactive substance in the fusion reaction. So there are the dangerous possibility of releasing of the tritium by vacuum pump. And there are the possibility of releasing of the dangerous neutron even if the neutron is to be collected by the blanket made with cupper in the furnace.

 

2.Why or how is the EPF (Equal Pressure Fusion) absolutely safe?

2.核融合は何故安全なのか。

Q2 Why is the nuclei fusion safe?

 

(回答) これは「等圧法(EPF)」だけに言えるものがあるがおおむね「等圧法(EPF)」にも「真空法」にも共通する。

A   There are the answers that can be said in common with the [EPF] and [VSF] (Vacuum System Furnace) but are the answer which can be said only with [EPF].

 

A-a 炉内に装填される燃料の量が非常に少ない

核分裂の場合炉内に大量の燃料が装填されている。広島型原爆数10発~数

100発分といわれている。それが一度に反応したら恐ろしい。そして反応が始まったら止まらない。完全に止まるには数万年とも数10万年かかるとも言われている。

A-a  The amount of fuel is extremely little.

The amount of fuels in the fission furnace is so much as explained in the question 1. It is said that the amount corresponds to the hundreds of the Hiroshima type atomic bomb. It is very terrible if the fuels react at once. And the reaction do not stop almost eternally when the reaction start once.

一方核融合の場合炉内に存在する反応に必要な原材料はきわめて僅かである。そして消費した原料を常に補給するだけである。従って事故が発生したとき真空法のように放射性物質を原料とする場合であっても放射性物質を出し続けることは無い。すなわち福島原発のようにいつ収束するかわからないという事故にはならない。まして、今回紹介する等圧法の場合では炉内に放射性物質が存在しないのだから放射性物質での危険すらありえない。

On the other hand in the case of fusion furnace the amount of fuels are extremely little and the consumed fuels are supplied. Accordingly when accidents occur radioactive substance do not continue to release even in the case of vacuum system furnace which use radioactive substances as fuels. Namely the accident do not develop to severe accident as the Fukushima accident, much less in the EPF the small accident do not occur because of not containing of these radioactive substances as fuels.

 

「一例」100万kW出力の発電の場合の量

 

炉内に装填する量は真空法の場合もほぼ同程度であるが、等圧法の場合100kWの発電なら(効率40%として)圧力6MPa(60kg/cm)の場合体積で150mである。すなわち10グラム以下である。単位質量当たりの発熱量は核分裂も核融合もほとんど等しい。したがって核融合炉内の燃料が全部一瞬に反応したとしても大事故にならない。

 

[An example]

 

 In the case of the amount of fuels in the furnace generating one million kW of electric energy.

 

 The volume of fuels is about 150m when the pressure is6MPa(60kg/cmnamely below 10gram as mass. The amount of fuels are almost same in the case of EPF and vacuum system furnace. The generating energy by unit mass are almost same in the reaction of fission or fusion. Accordingly the severe accident as the Fukushima do not occur absolutely.

 

A-b反応の方式が核分裂とは全く異なる

 

核融合の場合反応率が極大となる条件の温度で運転することが可能である。それゆえ反応が進んで温度が上昇しても逆に下降しても自動的に反応率が低下し暴走しない。反応量の調節は(等圧法の場合)圧力と磁気強さや電圧などの調節で容易に行える。また電源が停止すれば電圧や磁場が消滅し自動的に反応が停止する。

 

A-b. The form of fusion reaction is different from of the fission reaction. In the case of the fusion there are the maximum reaction speed in the temperature. So when the temperature grow up or drop down from the temperature of the maximum rate the reaction rate is to drop down and so the reaction could not grow up. The control of the reaction rate in the EPF is able by controlling of the pressure or the magnetic or the electric strength. And when the electric source stop by the accident the reaction stop automatically because of distinguishing of the magnetic or the electric field. 

 

 

«なぜ等圧法核融合炉EPF (Equal Pressure Fusion)は安全か

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